House of Savoy
Founded by Humbert I 'the Whitehanded', Count of Savoy, in the 11th century, the House of Savoy was a European dynasty which became the ruling house of Italy from 1861-1946. From the Middle Ages, it gained considerable lands in France, Italy and Switzerland. It gained ducal status in the 15th century. It also became the ruling house (briefly) of Sicily, Sardinia and Spain and provided a pope. The family was exiled from Italy in 1946, but was allowed to return in 2002.