Nurse Practitioner Student
Tips for nurse practitioner students. This includes study tips, np school experiences, and advice.
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1. pH: 7.24; pCO2: 56mmHg; HCO3: 25mEq/L 2. pH: 7.30; pCO2: 39mmHg; HCO3: 20mEq/L 3. pH: 7.40; pCO2: 42mmHg; HCO3: 24mEq/L 4. pH: 7.52; pCO2: 54mmHg; HCO3: 15mEq/L Answer: 1. This patient would be in a state of respiratory acidosis, where the pCO2 would be increased, and the pH would be decreased. Think it through! Because the patient was hypoventilating, he would be retaining CO2 in his body because when we breath, be blow off CO2.
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1. Patient with 24 hours of vomiting from an E.coli infection 2. Patient with chronic kidney disease 3. Patient who overdosed on heroin with decreased respirations 4. Patient who is hyperventilating before going into surgery Answer: 4. Respiratory alkalosis is marked by decreased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood with subsequent increases in pH. The direct cause is an increase in respiratory rate, which results in the excessive loss of CO2 on exhalation.
1. Increased respiratory effort 2. Decreased respiratory effort 3. Paresthesias 4. Arrhythmias 5. Hyporeflexia 6. Ageusia Answer: 2, 3, 4. Metabolic alkalosis is a metabolic state where the body's pH is elevated above the normal range (7.35-7.45) due to increased bicarbonate (above 26mEq/L). Etiologies for this include a loss of hydrogen ions (Cl-) and fluid volume such as prolonged vomiting (where stomach acid is lost) and diarrhea.
1. Measure crutches to be three finger widths under axilla 2. Ensure handgrips are at 60 degree elbow flexion 3. Measure end of crutch to be six inches lateral from heel 4. Measure crutch to be four inches in front of each foot 5. Ensure handgrips are at 30 degree elbow flexion Answer: 1, 3, 5. Measuring crutches is an important action to prevent pressure on the axilla, which could lead to neurovascular problems.
1. Hypotension 2. Polyuria 3. Hematuria 4. Flank Pain 5. Decreased BUN and CR 6. Proteinuria Answer: 3, 4, 6. Glomerulonephritis is a kidney disorder characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli. The most common cause of this disease process is from group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the skin, tonsils, or pharynx. Signs and symptoms include hypertension, proteinuria, oliguria, generalized edema, increased BUN and CR, and flank pain.
1. GFR > 60mL/min 2. GFR < 60mL/min 3. Hypertension 4. Hypotension 5. Hypercalcemia 6. Neuropathy Answer: 2,3,6. A person meets the criteria for chronic kidney disease when their glomerular filtration rate drops below 60mL per minute. When kidney function declines, waste products begin to accumulate in the body, causing clinical weakness, hypertension, hyperkalemia, mineral and bone disorders, and neuropathy.
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